MuleSoft helps deliver faster and more connected experiences to your customers by offering end-to-end automation and orchestration of all your systems.
This platform enables integrating applications, devices, and data on both cloud and on-premises.
Since automation reduces errors and increases efficiency, modern businesses use platforms like Mulesoft to integrate various development and management tools and automate their tasks while eliminating human errors.
In 2006, RossMason from San Francisco invented Mulesoft. According to the Mulesoft website, the platform was created to eliminate the “donkey work” in dealing with development or management tools.
Although tasks requiring human intervention can be automated through Mulesoft, critical tasks such as making creative decisions still need human intervention.
So, small enterprises and entrepreneurs find the platform suitable for their business activities.
This is also why its popularity is increasing, and so are the career opportunities.
So, if you want to land some lucrative offers from organizations requiring a skilled professional on MuleSoft, this article can help you.
I’ll discuss some important MuleSoft interview questions and answers to give you a better insight into the platform.
But before that, let’s understand the reason behind MuleSoft’s popularity.
Why Is MuleSoft So Popular?
In May 2018, Salesforce acquired Mulesoft for $6.5 billion. The acquisition at such a whopping cost indicates the rising popularity of Mulesoft. The platform is popular among business owners and entrepreneurs for many reasons, including:
- Businesses need IT partners, not providers: Hiring IT to support companies has become costly for most businesses. Therefore, budding entrepreneurs and small enterprises want partners instead of IT providers. Mulesoft assists businesses in automating certain tasks efficiently, so businesses do not have to look for IT service providers to deal with those tasks.
- Data-driven business model: Mulesoft helps businesses adopt a data-driven business model, which is essential nowadays for business growth. A data-driven model is crucial for more accurate decision-making. Nevertheless, business owners can make timely decisions to improve their business revenue.
- Security: Every business wants a secured platform, and Mulesoft comes with robust security features. Mulesoft has been around since 2006 and has always ensured top-notch data security for its customers. After being acquired by Salesforce, new security features have been introduced to make Mulesoft more convenient for users.
- Frequent updates and upgrades: Platforms need to be improved and made to adapt to the current user expectations, whether in terms of features or UI and UX, to succeed in the market. Mulesoft is a classic example of this as it keeps on being updated with time. Business owners find Mulesoft integrations convenient and advanced due to their robust, improved, and advanced features.
Some MuleSoft Interview Questions and Answers
Explain Mule ESB and its basic features.
Answer: The Mule is known as the runtime engine of the Anypoint Platform. Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is an integral part of Mulesoft. Thus, Mule ESB is an integration platform and a lightweight Java-based program that lets developers easily connect with applications and quickly exchange data.
Some of its basic features are:
- Mule ESB can transform and map visual data.
- You will get a simple drag-and-drop graphical design.
- It offers enterprise security enforcement abilities.
- You will find centralized administration and monitoring.
How to improve the performance of the Mule Application?
Answer: Applications that are integrated or hosted on Mulesoft often work flawlessly, as the platform’s automation optimizes the performance of those apps.
However, a few users may notice sluggish application performance. But you can optimize the application’s performance by taking certain measures.
- Using the flow references over the VM endpoints
- Using the connectors to deploy connection pooling
- Deploying Dataweave for performance transformation
- Staying away from session variables
- Avoiding the session variable’s serialization
What is Flow in Mule?
Answer: A “flow” in Mule refers to a series of components linked together for application integration. The flow starts from an inbound endpoint component, the place of origin for a communication.
Similarly, the flow ends at the outbound endpoint component to end communication. The flow, consisting of components, is essential for starting and ending communications for the applications integrated with Mulesoft.
Deep dive into SOAP.
Answer: Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a message protocol that uses multiple distributed elements of an application for effortless communication. Typically, the users conduct SOAP over many types of standardized protocols.
For example, it can be conducted over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Mulesoft helps application developers create SOAP services. You can initiate a SOAP service over Mulesoft through the following steps:
- When you create a Mule project using RAML, you can create a SOAP service for your application.
- You can also use the web service consumer to consume the SOAP service for your Mule project.
What is the correlation context?
Answer: Correlation context comes into the picture when the mediation primitive needs to pass the value from the request to the response flow. It defines the patterns for similar groups of events in traffic. Also, log servers and NGFW engines use correlation context to analyze the detected events.
Give a glimpse into the different tools and services offered by Mulesoft.
Answer: Mulesoft offers plenty of valuable tools and services for integrating their applications and data. Some of the important tools and services by MuleSoft are:
- API Manager: Another popular tool, API Manager, offers management services to users. The tool helps manage users, SLAs, and traffic efficiently.
- Anypoint Studio: Developers can use Anypoint Studio for editing and creating APIs. They can integrate the APIs into their projects according to their specific requirements.
- API documentation: Developers can refer to comprehensive API documentation, various code samples, and tutorials to understand MuleSoft and its working.
- API analytics: Mulesoft offers an API analytics tool for tracking API performance. Users can view charts, graphs, and data insights to improve application performance.
Mention various types of variables in Mule.
Answer: There are three types of variables in Mule, namely:
- Flow Variable: It is used to remove variables or set up some variables that are tied to the message in the flow.
- Session Variable: It is also used to remove or set some variables tied to the message for an entire lifecycle across different flows.
- Record Variable: Unlike the other variables, it is the set used inside the batch job. This is available in the process phase.
What are flow processing strategies?
Answer: A flow processing strategy tells how Mule deploys message processing for a given flow. There are six different types of flow processing strategies in Mule:
- Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy
- Custom Processing Strategy
- Thread per processing strategy
- Queued Asynchronous Flow Processing Strategy
- Synchronous Flow Processing Strategy
- Non-blocking Flow Processing Strategy
- Queued Flow Processing Strategy
Mule chooses a processing strategy based on the flow’s exchange pattern and whether the flow is transactional or not.
Explain a bit about the Mule transformer.
Answer: A Mule transformer has a simple behavior. It strictly enforces the data types that it receives along with the outputs. A single configuration is enough to get an expected result. Mule has multiple transformers.
Furthermore, a Mule transformer doesn’t report an exception for the bad input but returns the original message without playing with the expected result type. It can alter the message in many ways, such as payload type transformation, payload format transformation, and properties transformation.
How to compose messages in Mule?
Answer: To compose messages in Mule, you need to define:
- Payload (the main context of data)
- Properties (meta-information or header)
- Multiple name attachments (support multiple part messages), and
- An exceptional payload (hold errors during the processing of an event).
Explain Mule Data Integrator.
Answer: Data Integrator, also known as a data visualization mapping tool, is launched by Mule. It supports flat files, XML mapping, and Java objects.
The Mule Data Integrator offers drag-drop features to transform the coding process efficiently. It solves the issues of transforming, consolidating, and moving information from different parts of the enterprise. This allows the Data Integrator to undergo many solutions like standardizing, manipulation, synchronization, deduplication, and cleansing between sources.
What are fan-in and fan-out?
Answer: Fan-in refers to the highest number of input signals that can help in feeding input operations of the logic cell.
On the other hand, fan-out refers to the highest number of output signals that can help feed the logic cell’s output equations.
Explain a bit about Mule Expression Language.
Answer: Mule Expression Language (MEL) analyzes and accesses data in a message’s payload properties and variables. It allows smart and rapid filtering, routing, or operating on distinct components of the message object. Moreover, it is practically usable and accessible from each message processor in the Mule.
Define the transient context.
Answer: Developers use the transient context to pass values through an existing flow. They may request a flow or respond to the flow using this transient context. The transient context makes passing values between mediation primitives on an existing flow easier.
Typically, developers use transient context to save an input message before dealing with a call invoked by a service. Moreover, the developers can use the next primitives to create another call that includes service-invoked responses.
What is TSD?
Answer: Transport Service Descriptor (TSD) is a connector that developers can use for technical configuration. The TSD defines a class name developers use for requesters, receivers, and dispatchers. The default value may vary depending on the situation and transport behavior.
Explain the scheduler endpoint.
Answer: A scheduler endpoint is a Mule component that works on a time-driven condition. The scheduler endpoint will allow the users to trigger this whenever it meets the time-driven condition.
The endpoint scheduler comes with some crucial parameters, such as:
- Frequency: The scheduler uses the parameter to trigger flows.
- Time Unit: Developers can use the time unit to measure start delay and frequency.
- Start Delay: The time before triggering a flow is known as the start delay.
Tell a bit about the Scatter-Gather Router.
Answer: The most commonly used routing event processor has been termed a scatter-gather router. The routing event processor can send a request message to more than one target according to the requirements of the developers. The router collects all the responses from different routes and configures them into one response.
What is DataWeave?
Answer: The DataWeave is a powerful and simple tool to transform and query data inside the Mule. You can implement it in graphical map fields or leverage its object-oriented language especially designed to make quick writing transformations without sacrificing maintainability.
DataWeave supports multiple transformations, such as one-to-one, many-to-one, and one-to-many mappings. In simple words, DataWeave builds products on data by using easy-to-implement available data on the web.
Explain the statement in MuleSoft – “Any Point Platform”.
Answer: MuleSoft is a highly scalable and secure communication network that ensures applications do self-service. Also, it helps many organizations to integrate data, devices, applications, and more in a flexible ecosystem.
It’s a hybrid application integration platform that offers unified solutions for API management, application design, publishing, and ESB.
Thus, MuleSoft is known as “Any Point Platform” because of the following features:
- Anypoint Design Center
- Anypoint Exchange
- Anypoint Management center
- Anypoint Security
- Runtime engine and services
- Application Network
- API-led connectivity
Answer: Payload is a Mule runtime variable that can store arrays or objects. The applications may have payloads in different forms; thus, the developers use the payload variable to access those payloads present in various forms.
What are SMO and SDO?
Answer: Service Data Object (SDO) represents the variable or object. It is designed to streamline data processing from diverse sources, including web services, relational databases, and XML documents. Application programmers conveniently use SDO with static and dynamic interfaces.
Service Message Object (SMO) offers an abstraction layer for manipulating and processing message requests between services. It represents the data passing through the mediation flows. The content of SMO can be accessed through the SDO API.
What are the File Age properties in the file connector?
Answer: Any point connector is a tool for handling the folders and files stored on a local file system on the MuleSoft-integrated application. The connector can read files and create a content directory list for the users.
As a result, the files and folders stay organized for the developers and users. Moreover, you can easily access the required files or folders according to your requirements during the FTP operations for creating directories and moving or deleting files.
What is transport layer functionality?
Answer: Transport layer functions can establish communication between an application and a network. However, sending large messages can make systems sluggish. In such cases, the developers have used the transport layer functions to convert large messages into smaller ones and transport them easily.
For example, the VM connector on MuleSoft can offer transport layer functionality within an app. This also helps establish a data transportation layer between two different applications on Mule.
What is RAML in Mulesoft?
Answer: RAML is the acronym for Restful API Modeling Language (RAML), built on top of the YAML language used to describe RESTful APIs.
Mule developers use RAML to describe and define the RESTful applications integrated with MuleSoft. Since it is a standardized language, other developers working on the same project can easily understand the details.
What is MUnit?
Answer: MUnit is the Mule application testing framework that lets developers build automated tests for API integrations. It comes with a full integration suite and unit test capabilities for developers. Furthermore, the suite is fully integrated with Surefire and Maven.
Some features of MUnit are:
- The MUnit framework allows developers to use Java or Mule code according to their expertise.
- You can test and design your Mule APIs on MUnit.
- MUnit users have access to auto-generated tests and coverage reports.
- Users can extend the MUnit framework using plugins.
- You can get error reports if an error has been encountered with a Mule stack trace.
- MUnit users can also enable/disable tests.
What is CloudHub in MuleSoft?
Answer: CloudHub is an Integrated Platform as a Service (iPaaS) for Mule users. The platform comes with high-end security to protect data from mishandling. It also offers a multi-tenant feature to host public cloud infrastructure for Mule users.
In addition, developers can access and manage the runtime control planes through MuleSoft. Scalability and automatic updates are some of the other features of CloudHub.
Explain the Platform Cloud Edition.
Answer: Platform Cloud Edition helps you run and manage Mule applications on local servers by following suitable security policies. To avoid interaction with external systems, you will get control plane functionality locally.
Furthermore, you can easily configure and run Platform Cloud Edition to maintain data processing, transmission, storage, etc. It also uses Kubernetes and Docker to offer built-in scalability and high availability.
What is Mule Maven Plugin?
Answer: Mule Maven Plugin manages the MuleSoft application’s deployment/undeployment. It is compatible with the Community Mule Kernel and Enterprise Mule Runtime engine.
With Mule Maven Plugin, you can easily automate the Mule application deployment to Anypoint Runtime Fabric, CloudHub, on-premises, etc. It has three goals:
- Generating a jar file for the project
- Uploading and starting the application automatically in any of the deployment targets
- Deploying the artifact or removing the application from the deployment targets
What is Anypoint MQ?
Answer: Anypoint MQ is a cloud messaging and enterprise multi-tenant service that comes as a part of the Anypoint platform. Developers need Anypoint MQ for dealing with asynchronous messaging.
For example, you need the service to queue up fully hosted and managed cloud exchanges and messages.
What are dedicated load balancers?
Answer: The dedicated load balancers are the optimal components of the Anypoint Platform. It enables you to route external traffic to different Mule applications deployed to the CloudHub workers in a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC).
Explain the differences between ESB and JMS.
Answer: The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) offers middleware and an interface that helps businesses connect various applications without knowing how to code.
On the other hand, Java Messaging Service (JMS) enables communication through messaging between multiple applications or modules.
What is Filter in Mule?
Answer: The filter typically works over an array to apply expressions that will return matching values. This means it determines whether a message will proceed using application flow based on test or condition.
MuleSoft has become immensely popular among entrepreneurs and small-scale businesses. Therefore, becoming an expert in Mulesoft can give you a brilliant career.
Thus, consider the above questions and their answers if preparing for a MuleSoft interview. Learning about them will help you understand the platform and ace your interview for lucrative land opportunities.
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