Les commandes ad-hoc sont utilisées dans Ansible pour exécuter des tâches instantanément, et vous n'avez pas besoin de les enregistrer pour une utilisation ultérieure. Cet article concerne Ansible Ad-hoc Command.

Il existe plusieurs tâches dans Ansible pour lesquelles vous n'avez pas besoin d'écrire un Playbook Ansible pour ça; vous pouvez simplement exécuter une commande ad-hoc ansible pour cette tâche. Il s'agit d'une commande à une seule ligne pour effectuer une seule tâche sur l'hôte cible. Ces commandes sont présentes dans /usr/bin/ansible

Des tâches telles que l'envoi de requêtes ping à tous les hôtes pour vérifier s'ils sont en cours d'exécution, la copie d'un fichier, le redémarrage des serveurs, l'installation d'un package peuvent être facilement effectuées via les commandes ad-hoc Ansible. Voici une liste de commandes fondamentales Ansible Ad-hoc que vous devez connaître.

Basic Commands

La commande ad hoc ci-dessous exécute un module ping sur tous les hôtes du fichier d'inventaire. Ici -m est l'option pour un module.

<strong>root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible all -m ping</strong>
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

La commande mentionnée ci-dessous exécute le module de configuration sur un groupe d'hôtes - Logiciels présent dans le fichier d'inventaire '/ etc / ansible / hosts'.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m setup -a "filter=ansible_distribution*"
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_distribution": "Ubuntu", 
        "ansible_distribution_file_parsed": true, 
        "ansible_distribution_file_path": "/etc/os-release", 
        "ansible_distribution_file_variety": "Debian", 
        "ansible_distribution_major_version": "18", 
        "ansible_distribution_release": "cosmic", 
        "ansible_distribution_version": "18.10", 
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false
}

La commande ci-dessous est utilisée pour demander l'authentification par mot de passe SSH. Vous devez ajouter –ask-pass option à la fin de la commande. Après avoir exécuté la commande, il vous demandera d'entrer le mot de passe SSH.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m ping --ask-pass
SSH password: 
node1 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

La commande ci-dessous vous permet d'exécuter des commandes ad hoc en tant qu'utilisateur non root avec des privilèges root. L'option --become donne les privilèges root et -K option demande le mot de passe.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m shell -a 'fdisk -l' -u geekflare --become -K
BECOME password: 
node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Disk /dev/loop0: 14.5 MiB, 15208448 bytes, 29704 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop2: 42.1 MiB, 44183552 bytes, 86296 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop3: 149.9 MiB, 157184000 bytes, 307000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop5: 140.7 MiB, 147501056 bytes, 288088 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop6: 151.2 MiB, 158584832 bytes, 309736 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop7: 14.8 MiB, 15458304 bytes, 30192 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sda: 500 GiB, 536870912000 bytes, 1048576000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xcef957f5

Device     Boot     Start        End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1            2048  462639103 462637056 220.6G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2  *    462639104  464592895   1953792   954M 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       464592896  482168831  17575936   8.4G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       482168832 1048573951 566405120 270.1G 83 Linux


Disk /dev/loop8: 4 MiB, 4218880 bytes, 8240 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Cette commande ad hoc est utilisée pour redémarrer le système avec l'option -f pour définir le nombre de fourches.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -a "/sbin/reboot" -f 1

File Transfer

La commande ad-hoc ansible ci-dessous est utilisée pour copier un fichier d'une source vers une destination pour un groupe d'hôtes (Client) défini dans le fichier d'inventaire. Après avoir entré le mot de passe, la sortie avec le paramètre «change» sera «true», ce qui signifie que le fichier a été copié vers la destination.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m copy -a 'src=/home/geekflare/nginx.yml dest=/home/geekflare/Desktop/ owner=root mode=0644' -u root --become -K
BECOME password: 
node1 | CHANGED => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "5631822866afd5f19b928edb3ba018385df22dd3", 
    "dest": "/home/geekflare/Desktop/nginx.yml", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "0d6ffe1069fc25ad4f8ad700277c4634", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 280, 
    "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1562253463.3-214622150088155/source", 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}

Exécutez la commande ci-dessous pour vérifier si le module de copie a fonctionné correctement ou non. Le fichier copié doit arriver à la destination mentionnée dans la commande précédente.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ls Desktop/

nginx.yml

Je crée un nouveau répertoire pour exécuter la commande ad-hoc suivante du module de récupération n.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# mkdir example

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ls

Desktop  Documents  example  examples.desktop  nginx_new.yml  nginx.yml

La commande ad-hoc ansible ci-dessous est utilisée pour télécharger un fichier à partir d'un hôte défini dans la commande. Dans cette commande, nous téléchargeons un fichier à l'aide du module fetch du serveur node1 vers une destination locale sur un nœud ansible.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible node1 -m fetch -a 'src=/etc/sudoers.d/nginx.yml dest=/home/geekflare/example/ flat=yes'

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "changed": false,

    "checksum": "5631822866afd5f19b928edb3ba018385df22dd3",

    "dest": "/home/geekflare/example/nginx.yml",

    "file": "/etc/sudoers.d/nginx.yml",

    "md5sum": "0d6ffe1069fc25ad4f8ad700277c4634"

}

Vérifiez si le fichier a été téléchargé ou non à la destination mentionnée dans la commande.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ls example

nginx.yml

Manage Packages

La commande mentionnée ci-dessous installe nginx sur un groupe d'hôtes (Client) mentionné à l'aide d'un module apt.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m apt -a 'name=nginx state=latest' --become

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "cache_update_time": 1562411227,

    "cache_updated": false,

    "changed": false

}

La commande mentionnée ci-dessous supprime nginx sur un groupe d'hôtes (Client) à l'aide du module apt et purge toutes les configurations associées.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m apt -a 'name=nginx state=absent purge=yes' --become

node1 | CHANGED => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": true,

    "stderr": "",

    "stderr_lines": [],

    "stdout": "Reading package lists...\nBuilding dependency tree...\nReading state information...\nThe following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:\n  libnginx-mod-http-geoip libnginx-mod-http-image-filter\n  libnginx-mod-http-xslt-filter libnginx-mod-mail libnginx-mod-stream\n  nginx-common nginx-core\nUse 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.\nThe following packages will be REMOVED:\n  nginx*\n0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 241 not upgraded.\nAfter this operation, 44.0 kB disk space will be freed.\n(Reading database ... \r(Reading database ... 5%\r(Reading database ... 10%\r(Reading database ... 15%\r(Reading database ... 20%\r(Reading database ... 25%\r(Reading database ... 30%\r(Reading database ... 35%\r(Reading database ... 40%\r(Reading database ... 45%\r(Reading database ... 50%\r(Reading database ... 55%\r(Reading database ... 60%\r(Reading database ... 65%\r(Reading database ... 70%\r(Reading database ... 75%\r(Reading database ... 80%\r(Reading database ... 85%\r(Reading database ... 90%\r(Reading database ... 95%\r(Reading database ... 100%\r(Reading database ... 180191 files and directories currently installed.)\r\nRemoving nginx (1.15.5-0ubuntu2.1) ...\r\n",

    "stdout_lines": [

        "Reading package lists...",

        "Building dependency tree...",

        "Reading state information...",

        "The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:",

        "  libnginx-mod-http-geoip libnginx-mod-http-image-filter",

        "  libnginx-mod-http-xslt-filter libnginx-mod-mail libnginx-mod-stream",

        "  nginx-common nginx-core",

        "Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.",

        "The following packages will be REMOVED:",

        "  nginx*",

        "0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 241 not upgraded.",

        "After this operation, 44.0 kB disk space will be freed.",

        "(Reading database ... ",

        "(Reading database ... 5%",

        "(Reading database ... 10%",

        "(Reading database ... 15%",

        "(Reading database ... 20%",

        "(Reading database ... 25%",

        "(Reading database ... 30%",

        "(Reading database ... 35%",

        "(Reading database ... 40%",

        "(Reading database ... 45%",

        "(Reading database ... 50%",

        "(Reading database ... 55%",

        "(Reading database ... 60%",

        "(Reading database ... 65%",

        "(Reading database ... 70%",

        "(Reading database ... 75%",

        "(Reading database ... 80%",

        "(Reading database ... 85%",

        "(Reading database ... 90%",

        "(Reading database ... 95%",

        "(Reading database ... 100%",

        "(Reading database ... 180191 files and directories currently installed.)",

        "Removing nginx (1.15.5-0ubuntu2.1) ..."

    ]

}

Manage Services

La commande ad-hoc ansible ci-dessous exécute le module de service pour démarrer nginx sur l'hôte. La valeur d'état doit être démarrée.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m service -a 'name=nginx state=started enabled=yes' --become

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": false,

    "enabled": true,

    "name": "nginx",

    "state": "started",

    "status": {

        "ActiveEnterTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "31411371",

        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0",

        "ActiveState": "active",

        "After": "sysinit.target system.slice systemd-journald.socket basic.target network.target",

        "AllowIsolate": "no",

        "AmbientCapabilities": "",

        "AssertResult": "yes",

        "AssertTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "AssertTimestampMonotonic": "27694868",

        "Before": "multi-user.target shutdown.target",

        "BlockIOAccounting": "no",

        "BlockIOWeight": "[not set]",

        "CapabilityBoundingSet": "cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend",

        "CollectMode": "inactive",

        "ConditionResult": "yes",

        "ConditionTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "ConditionTimestampMonotonic": "27694867",

        "ConfigurationDirectoryMode": "0755",

        "Conflicts": "shutdown.target",

        "ControlGroup": "/system.slice/nginx.service",

        "ControlPID": "0",

        "ExecMainStartTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ExecMainStartTimestampMonotonic": "31411353",

        "ExecMainStatus": "0",

        "ExecReload": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; -s reload ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStart": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStartPre": "{ path=/usr/sbin/nginx ; argv[]=/usr/sbin/nginx -t -q -g daemon on; master_process on; ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "ExecStop": "{ path=/sbin/start-stop-daemon ; argv[]=/sbin/start-stop-daemon --quiet --stop --retry QUIT/5 --pidfile /run/nginx.pid ; ignore_errors=yes ; start_time=[n/a] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=0 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }",

        "FailureAction": "none",

        "FileDescriptorStoreMax": "0",

        "FragmentPath": "/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service",

        "GID": "[not set]",

        "GuessMainPID": "yes",

        "IOAccounting": "no",

        "IOSchedulingClass": "0",

        "IOSchedulingPriority": "0",

        "IOWeight": "[not set]",

    }

}

Le module de service ci-dessous exécute pour arrêter nginx sur l'hôte. La valeur de l'état passe à arrêté.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m service -a 'name=nginx state=stopped' --become

node1 | CHANGED => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"

    },

    "changed": true,

    "name": "nginx",

    "state": "stopped",

    "status": {

        "ActiveEnterTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:28:02 EDT",

        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "31411371",

        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0",

        "ActiveState": "active",

        "After": "sysinit.target system.slice systemd-journald.socket basic.target network.target",

        "AllowIsolate": "no",

        "AmbientCapabilities": "",

        "AssertResult": "yes",

        "AssertTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "AssertTimestampMonotonic": "27694868",

        "Before": "multi-user.target shutdown.target",

        "BlockIOAccounting": "no",

        "BlockIOWeight": "[not set]",

        "CPUAccounting": "no",

        "CPUQuotaPerSecUSec": "infinity",

        "CanReload": "yes",

        "CanStart": "yes",

        "CanStop": "yes",

        "CapabilityBoundingSet": "cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend",

        "CollectMode": "inactive",

        "ConditionResult": "yes",

        "ConditionTimestamp": "Sat 2019-07-06 08:27:59 EDT",

        "ConditionTimestampMonotonic": "27694867",

        "ConfigurationDirectoryMode": "0755",

        "Conflicts": "shutdown.target",

        "ControlGroup": "/system.slice/nginx.service",

        "ControlPID": "0",

        "DefaultDependencies": "yes",

        "Delegate": "no",

        "Description": "A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server",

        "DevicePolicy": "auto",

        "Documentation": "man:nginx(8)",

        "DynamicUser": "no",

  }

}

Checking the System

La commande ad-hoc ansible mentionnée ci-dessous exécute un module shell pour vérifier le disque disponible sur les partitions racine.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m shell -a 'df -h /dev/sda2' --become

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda2       923M  113M  748M  14% /boot

Cette commande mentionnée ci-dessous exécute un module shell pour vérifier la mémoire libre (RAM) sur l'hôte.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -m shell -a 'free -m' --become

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available

Mem:           5101         854        2760          27        1487        3947

Swap:          8581           0        8581

Cette commande vérifie la disponibilité de chaque serveur en cours d'exécution.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible Client -a "uptime"

node1 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

 11:31:17 up 1 day,  2:40,  2 users,  load average: 0.23, 0.05, 0.02

Gathering Facts

La commande ad-hoc ansible ci-dessous vous donnera toutes les informations ad-hoc de votre système, y compris toutes les variables présentes dans le système.

root@geekflare:/home/geekflare# ansible all -m setup

node1 | SUCCESS => {

    "ansible_facts": {

        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [

            "172.17.0.1",

            "10.0.2.15"

        ],

        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [

            "fe80::763e:c0b4:14df:b273"

        ],

        "ansible_apparmor": {

            "status": "enabled"

        },

        "ansible_architecture": "x86_64",

        "ansible_bios_date": "12/01/2006",

        "ansible_bios_version": "VirtualBox",

        "ansible_cmdline": {

            "BOOT_IMAGE": "/vmlinuz-4.18.0-25-generic",

            "quiet": true,

            "ro": true,

            "root": "UUID=5f85d8b7-0ab2-48c9-9e6e-4ecfbcbdaa83",

            "splash": true

        },

        "ansible_date_time": {

            "date": "2019-07-07",

            "day": "07",

            "epoch": "1562525628",

            "hour": "14",

            "iso8601": "2019-07-07T18:53:48Z",

            "iso8601_basic": "20190707T145348850596",

            "iso8601_basic_short": "20190707T145348",

            "iso8601_micro": "2019-07-07T18:53:48.850697Z",

            "minute": "53",

            "month": "07",

            "second": "48",

            "time": "14:53:48",

            "tz": "EDT",

            "tz_offset": "-0400",

            "weekday": "Sunday",

            "weekday_number": "0",

            "weeknumber": "26",

            "year": "2019"

        },

        "ansible_default_ipv4": {

            "address": "10.0.2.15",

            "alias": "enp0s3",

            "broadcast": "10.0.2.255",

            "gateway": "10.0.2.2",

            "interface": "enp0s3",

            "macaddress": "08:00:27:68:64:9a",

            "mtu": 1500,

            "netmask": "255.255.255.0",

            "network": "10.0.2.0",

            "type": "ether"

        },

        "ansible_default_ipv6": {},

        "ansible_device_links": {

            "ids": {

                "sda": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5"

                ],

                "sda1": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part1"

                ],

                "sda2": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part2"

                ],

                "sda3": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part3"

                ],

                "sda4": [

                    "ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3a0a2351-0b6c0ed5-part4"

                ],

                "sr0": [

                    "ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB2-01700376"

                ]

            },

            "labels": {

                "sr0": [

                    "VBox_GAs_6.0.2"

                ]

            },

            "masters": {},

            "uuids": {

                "sda1": [

                    "5f85d8b7-0ab2-48c9-9e6e-4ecfbcbdaa83"

                ],

                "sda2": [

                    "b8b7f87b-c3bf-48ed-a44c-f9b3ce0afbe5"

                ],

                "sda3": [

                    "a6c77fa6-e292-4a0d-b21f-8804f1949bbd"

                ],

                "sda4": [

                    "8207f970-4d9a-47db-a5d5-f620e5b17b7b"

                ],

                "sr0": [

                    "2019-01-14-14-57-19-65"

                ]

            }

        },

        "ansible_devices": {

            "loop0": {

                "holders": [],

                "host": "",

                "links": {

                    "ids": [],

                    "labels": [],

                    "masters": [],

                    "uuids": []

                },

                "model": null,

                "partitions": {},

                "removable": "0",

                "rotational": "1",

                "sas_address": null,

                "sas_device_handle": null,

                "scheduler_mode": "none",

                "sectors": "29704",

                "sectorsize": "512",

                "size": "14.50 MB",

                "support_discard": "4096",

                "vendor": null,

                "virtual": 1

            },

            "loop1": {

                "holders": [],

                "host": "",

                "links": {

                    "ids": [],

                    "labels": [],

                    "masters": [],

                    "uuids": []

                },

                "model": null,

                "partitions": {},

                "removable": "0",

                "rotational": "1",

                "sas_address": null,

                "sas_device_handle": null,

                "scheduler_mode": "none",

                "sectors": "0",

                "sectorsize": "512",

                "size": "0.00 Bytes",

                "support_discard": "4096",

                "vendor": null,

                "virtual": 1

            },

}

Donc, c'était tout à propos des commandes ad hoc Ansible. Allez-y et essayez ces commandes sur votre configuration ansible. Utilisez ces commandes pour exécuter des modules ansible sans écrire de playbook Ansible pour effectuer ces tâches. Supprimez un commentaire si vous rencontrez un problème lors de l'exécution de ces commandes.